Free Shipping in U.S.


Buy with PRIME

Free Shipping in U.S.

Buy with PRIME

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone: The Longevity Vitamin that is Revolutionizing Health Supplements

Written by: MoxyVites Editorial Team



Time to read 7 min

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), though not currently classified as a vitamin, is a biofactor deeply involved in various essential biological processes, including mitochondriogenesis, growth, reproduction, and importantly, aging [1]. Its role extends beyond human health, acting as a growth factor in both plants and animals, enhancing growth and stress tolerance [2]. This emphasizes PQQ's potential in promoting healthy aging, essential for improving life quality over the years. In addition, its absence in diets elicits reactions akin to those observed with vitamin deficiencies, signifying its importance in nutritional health [1].

The potential health benefits of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplementation are vast, ranging from improved metabolic flexibility to offering immuno-and neuroprotection, making it a forefront topic in discussions about antioxidant properties and cognitive health [1]. With an ever-growing body of research supporting its benefits, this article delves into what pyrroloquinoline quinone is, its antioxidant benefits, the impact on mitochondrial function, and its cognitive health benefits. By understanding PQQ's role in diet and supplementation, and acknowledging possible pqq side effects, we gain insights into how this compound is revolutionizing health supplements and supporting the journey towards healthy aging.

What is PQQ?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a compound that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, essential for promoting healthy aging and enhancing the quality of life. Here's a closer look at what PQQ is:

  • Natural Sources: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is found naturally in several foods, including:
    • Spinach, kiwi, and soybeans [3]
    • Fermented soybeans, green peppers, parsley, tea, papaya, and celery [2]
    • It is notably present in human breastmilk, highlighting its importance from early life stages [3]
  • Manufacturing and Forms:
    • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplements are available mainly as capsules or soft gels [3]
    • These supplements are produced through a bacterial fermentation process, ensuring the bioavailability of PQQ [3]
  • Biological Significance:
    • Acts as a biofactor in mitochondriogenesis, growth, reproduction, and aging [1]
    • Functions as a redox cofactor and antioxidant, offering protection against cellular damage and supporting mitochondrial function [4]
    • Its absence in diets can result in symptoms similar to vitamin deficiencies, underscoring its nutritional importance [1]

Understanding PQQ's role and incorporating it into diets through natural sources or supplementation can contribute significantly to achieving a long, healthy life.

Antioxidant Properties

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) stands as a formidable antioxidant, surpassing even vitamin C in its capacity to combat free radicals, thus playing a crucial role in shielding the body from chronic diseases linked to free radical damage [2]. The antioxidant properties of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) are instrumental in:

  • Enhancing NAD+-dependent sirtuin activity: This activity, along with the expression of sirtuin targets, has shown potential benefits for heart health, diabetes, and cancer, highlighting Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) versatile role in promoting well-being [1].
  • Reducing inflammation: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has demonstrated effectiveness in lowering specific markers in the blood, thereby mitigating inflammation, a common precursor to various health conditions [2].
  • Protecting against oxidative damage and neurodegeneration: By bolstering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) helps safeguard against oxidative damage, encephalitis, and cognitive decline. Its potent antioxidant effects are crucial in a range of cellular processes, including the protection of nerve cells from damage and the prevention of neurodegeneration caused by oxidative stress [9][10].

Moreover, PQQ's involvement in the mitochondrial respirator chain's redox processes and the mitigation of oxidative stress within mitochondria underscores its pivotal role. Notably, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) not only shields mitochondria from oxidative stress but also encourages mitochondrial biogenesis, a process essential for energy production and cellular health [8]. This dual action of protecting and promoting mitochondrial function is vital for healthy aging, enhancing the quality of life as we age.

Impact on Mitochondrial Function

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) plays a pivotal role in enhancing mitochondrial function, which is crucial for energy production and overall cellular health. This section explores the impact of PQQ on mitochondrial function, emphasizing its significance in promoting healthy aging and improving quality of life.

  • Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function:
    1. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplements may increase the number of mitochondria, supporting heart health, diabetes management, and cancer prevention [2].
    2. It aids in mitochondrial biogenesis, crucial for energy production, by stimulating the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and increasing PGC-1α expression in mouse hepatocytes [8].
    3. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) role in improving mitochondrial function includes preventing rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in Parkinson’s disease models by promoting mitochondrial function and regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion [8].
  • Mitigating Mitochondrial Dysfunction:
    • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) can alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in obesity, potentially reducing obesity-related comorbidities like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and Type 2 diabetes [9].
    • Early research suggests PQQ may reduce inflammation and enhance mitochondrial function, further supporting its role in healthy aging [3].
  • Dietary Supplementation Benefits:
    • In animals, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) promotes plant growth, improves memory learning ability, and enhances mitochondrial function [5].
    • Dietary supplementation with PQQ has been shown to improve mitochondrial quantity and lipid metabolism in rats, indicating potential benefits for human health as well [8].
    • In humans, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplementation has been linked to improved peak oxygen consumption and mitochondrial biogenesis, highlighting its importance in maintaining energy levels and cellular health [8].

PQQ and Cognitive Health

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) and its Impact on Cognitive Health:

  • Memory Enhancement:
    • Studies indicate that Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) may bolster memory by augmenting blood flow to the cerebral cortex, a region pivotal for memory processing [2].
    • In both younger and older adults, PQQ supplementation has shown promise in enhancing cognitive functions, including memory [11][12].
  • Attention and Learning:
    • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) potential to improve attention and learning has been observed, with younger adults experiencing enhanced cognitive flexibility and processing speed after 8 weeks of intake [12].
    • Only older adults (41-65 years) exhibited improvements in complex and verbal memory, suggesting age-specific benefits of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on cognitive health [12].
  • Sleep Quality and Mood:
    • The supplementation of PQQ might not only ameliorate sleep quality and duration but also positively influence mood, underscoring its role in cognitive well-being [2].
    • As a nootropic, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplements, typically in capsule or soft gel form, are utilized to boost brain functions such as memory, mental focus, and creativity [3].

Incorporating Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) into one's regimen could, therefore, play a crucial role in supporting cognitive health and, by extension, contribute to healthy aging, essential for a higher quality of life throughout the years [2][3][11][12].

PQQ in Diet and Supplementation

Incorporating Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) into one's diet and supplementation routine offers a pathway to enhanced health, particularly in the realm of promoting healthy aging. Here's a closer look at how to integrate PQQ effectively:

  • Dietary Sources:
    • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is naturally present in various foods, making it accessible through a balanced diet. Key sources include natto, with the highest concentration of PQQ [7], and other foods like parsley, green pepper, kiwi, papaya, tofu, spinach, and green tea [13][7].
    • For those aiming to increase their Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) intake through diet, incorporating PQQ-rich recipes such as Strawberry Kiwi Smoothie, Carrot Turmeric Miso Soup, and Sweet Potato Hash can be beneficial [14].
  • Supplementation:
    • While diet is a primary source, PQQ supplements offer a concentrated dose for those seeking to optimize their health, prevent chronic diseases, and boost energy levels [14]. The recommended dosage ranges between 20-40 milligrams for most supplements, aligning with the needs of adults who may require 10-20 mg per day [14][13].
    • Selecting a high-quality Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplement is crucial. Look for products tested for purity and potency by reputable third-party organizations like NSF International or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) [3].
  • Health Benefits:
    • Studies have shown significant benefits from PQQ supplementation, including a drop in CRP and IL-6 levels, indicating reduced inflammation [3], and improvements in sleep quality and fatigue, further supporting the role of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in healthy aging [3].

By prioritizing Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) -rich foods and considering supplementation when necessary, individuals can support their journey towards healthy aging, contributing to a higher quality of life throughout the years.

Potential Side Effects and Considerations

While Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) has been celebrated for its potential in promoting healthy aging and enhancing mitochondrial function, it's crucial to approach its supplementation with awareness of potential side effects and considerations:

  • Consultation with Healthcare Providers:
    • Before integrating Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplements into your regimen, especially if you're currently on medication or other supplements, consulting a healthcare provider is advised to prevent any negative interactions [3].
  • Understanding Dosage and Side Effects:
    • Although Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is found in high amounts in supplements—250 times more than food sources—its benefits and safety at such levels are not fully understood. High doses of PQQ can lead to negative side effects, emphasizing the importance of adhering to the recommended dosage to mitigate risks [2][14].
  • Benefits with Considerations:
    • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) reduces body fat accumulation and mitigates mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation, showcasing its multifaceted benefits. However, the lack of extensive research on its side effects calls for prudent use and further investigation into its long-term safety and efficacy [9].

Adhering to these guidelines can support individuals in safely utilizing Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) to contribute to a higher quality of life through healthy aging.


What benefits does pyrroloquinoline quinone offer?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplements are primarily taken to support energy levels, memory, focus, and overall brain health. However, it's important to note that the full extent of how PQQ supplements impact health is still under investigation by researchers.

Are there any side effects associated with PQQ supplementation?

The intake of PQQ supplements can lead to several side effects, the most common of which include headaches, drowsiness, and fatigue. It's crucial to be cautious with dosage, as very high doses of PQQ may pose serious and potentially life-threatening health risks.

Can PQQ contribute to a longer lifespan?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been shown to increase resistance to oxidative stress and extend the lifespan of C. elegans, a type of worm used in scientific research. This effect is attributed to PQQ's ability to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at low concentrations, whereas higher concentrations are not effective.

What are some natural sources of pyrroloquinoline quinone?

PQQ can be found in a variety of common foods, including tea, papayas, kiwi fruits, and fermented soybeans known as B. natto. These foods provide a natural way to incorporate PQQ into your diet.